Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas – Day 33 of 165

“And that is?”

“You’re familiar with the composition of salt water. In 1,000 grams one finds 96.5% water and about 2.66% sodium chloride; then small quantities of magnesium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium bromide, sulfate of magnesia, calcium sulfate, and calcium carbonate. Hence you observe that sodium chloride is encountered there in significant proportions. Now then, it’s this sodium that I extract from salt water and with which I compose my electric cells.”


“Yes, sir. Mixed with mercury, it forms an amalgam that takes the place of zinc in Bunsen cells. The mercury is never depleted. Only the sodium is consumed, and the sea itself gives me that. Beyond this, I’ll mention that sodium batteries have been found to generate the greater energy, and their electro–motor strength is twice that of zinc batteries.”

“Captain, I fully understand the excellence of sodium under the conditions in which you’re placed. The sea contains it. Fine. But it still has to be produced, in short, extracted. And how do you accomplish this? Obviously your batteries could do the extracting; but if I’m not mistaken, the consumption of sodium needed by your electric equipment would be greater than the quantity you’d extract. It would come about, then, that in the process of producing your sodium, you’d use up more than you’d make!”

“Accordingly, professor, I don’t extract it with batteries; quite simply, I utilize the heat of coal from the earth.”

“From the earth?” I said, my voice going up on the word.

“We’ll say coal from the seafloor, if you prefer,” Captain Nemo replied.

“And you can mine these veins of underwater coal?”

“You’ll watch me work them, Professor Aronnax. I ask only a little patience of you, since you’ll have ample time to be patient. Just remember one thing: I owe everything to the ocean; it generates electricity, and electricity gives the Nautilus heat, light, motion, and, in a word, life itself.”

“But not the air you breathe?”

“Oh, I could produce the air needed on board, but it would be pointless, since I can rise to the surface of the sea whenever I like. However, even though electricity doesn’t supply me with breathable air, it at least operates the powerful pumps that store it under pressure in special tanks; which, if need be, allows me to extend my stay in the lower strata for as long as I want.”

“Captain,” I replied, “I’ll rest content with marveling. You’ve obviously found what all mankind will surely find one day, the true dynamic power of electricity.”

“I’m not so certain they’ll find it,” Captain Nemo replied icily. “But be that as it may, you’re already familiar with the first use I’ve found for this valuable force. It lights us, and with a uniformity and continuity not even possessed by sunlight. Now, look at that clock: it’s electric, it runs with an accuracy rivaling the finest chronometers. I’ve had it divided into twenty–four hours like Italian clocks, since neither day nor night, sun nor moon, exist for me, but only this artificial light that I import into the depths of the seas! See, right now it’s ten o’clock in the morning.”

“That’s perfect.”

“Another use for electricity: that dial hanging before our eyes indicates how fast the Nautilus is going. An electric wire puts it in contact with the patent log; this needle shows me the actual speed of my submersible. And . . . hold on . . . just now we’re proceeding at the moderate pace of fifteen miles per hour.”

“It’s marvelous,” I replied, “and I truly see, Captain, how right you are to use this force; it’s sure to take the place of wind, water, and steam.”

“But that’s not all, Professor Aronnax,” Captain Nemo said, standing up. “And if you’d care to follow me, we’ll inspect the Nautilus’s stern.”

In essence, I was already familiar with the whole forward part of this underwater boat, and here are its exact subdivisions going from amidships to its spur: the dining room, 5 meters long and separated from the library by a watertight bulkhead, in other words, it couldn’t be penetrated by the sea; the library, 5 meters long; the main lounge, 10 meters long, separated from the captain’s stateroom by a second watertight bulkhead; the aforesaid stateroom, 5 meters long; mine, 2.5 meters long; and finally, air tanks 7.5 meters long and extending to the stempost. Total: a length of 35 meters. Doors were cut into the watertight bulkheads and were shut hermetically by means of india–rubber seals, which insured complete safety aboard the Nautilus in the event of a leak in any one section.


  1. TurtleReader Identiconcomment_author_IP, $comment->comment_author); }else{echo $gravatar_link;}}*/ ?>

    TurtleReader wrote:

    Bunsen cell
    A zinc-carbon battery composed of a zinc anode in dilute sulphuric acid separated by a porous pot from a carbon cathode in nitric or chromic acid. Cell voltage is about 1.9 volts.
    patent log
    A torpedo-shaped instrument with rotary fins that is dragged from the stern of a vessel to measure the speed or distance traveled

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